You’ve probably heard somebody say they used bluestone for getting rid of algae in ponds or you’ve read somewhere about this miraculous method. Let’s put our enthusiasm aside for a few brief moments and consider the reality of what happens when you add this to water.
Bluestone is copper sulfate and it does indeed kill off the blue-green algae in water if it applied at concentrations high enough to do the job.
It is sometimes recommended for commercial fish production as well as keeping water clear for animal drinking in agricultural settings. I’ve experimented with this material in my own ponds and I have some thoughts for you as well as the raw data you’ll require if you want to do similar experiments.
First Thing to Understand About Bluestone
To begin with, if you’re growing fish in this pond be aware that concentrations high enough to kill off algae are almost high enough to kill fish.
And it isn’t just the amount of bluestone you add that does the trick, it is the total alkalinity measurement of the water when combined with the bluestone that produces an algae kill and possibly a fish kill.
In other words, the higher the total alkalinity, the more you can use and the closer you can come to lethal doses more quickly
Algae is killed at one-half part per million while fish are killed at 2 parts/million.
This amount is much more easily managed on a large pond than a small pond. On commercial sized ponds measure in acres, we’re talking using pounds of material to achieve these concentrations. In small home scale ponds, we’re talking the difference between a half tablespoon and a three-quarter tablespoon or 2 grams and 4 grams.
If you’re growing fish in a small home scale pond, then the chances of overdosing with bluestone are high. There is simply too much variability in the water quality and the fish to recommend using this material.
Do not consider using this material on small home ponds
Also, if you’re growing any of these fish in your pond, understand these fish are more sensitive to bluestone than others: carp, grass carp, goldfish, koi, trout and salmon.
Having said that
If you don’t have fish in your pond, and if you’re determined to play around, here’s the data you need to know. In order for bluestone to work effectively, the concentration of bluestone must be equally distributed throughout the entire pond water. You’ll require some form of water movement – be it a pump, filtration or aeration system to get the water mixed up.
To determine how much to use, you’ll need to do some basic math. The first is to calculate the size of your pond. You need to know the “acre/feet” of your pond which is a measure of the total cubic area of water. To calculate this – multiply the surface area of your pond by the measure of the deepest part of the pond. If your pond has 5000 square feet then it is roughly 5000 divided by 43,560 or roughly one-eighth of an acre. Multiply this area by the depth 12 feet to obtain your acre/feet measure.
Because you have sides of the pond and shallow areas, it is often recommended you multiply this result by 40-50% to account for the variation in depths. If your pond has straight sides, then go with a higher number. Obviously this is somewhat of a judgment call (again, a reason why smaller ponds are more problematic when it comes to using bluestone).
Knowing the acre/feet of your pond, you now need to know the total alkalinity of the pond. Go to a pool supply store and get the water tested or purchase a testing kit to use.
Below 20 Copper sulfate should not be used
20 mg/l use .6 lbs/acre-foot
50 mg/l use 1.3 lbs/acre-foot
100 mg/l use 2.0 lbs/acre-foot
150 mg/l use 2.8 lbs/acre-foot
200 mg/l use 5.5 lbs/acre-foot
Above 200 – do not use as the effectiveness decreases with increased alkalinity.
There are household conversion rates available on the Internet but these are mostly measured in gram differences. The practical value of these for small ponds is minimal as only a slight miscalculation of the depth or total water volume of your pond will result in a fish kill.
Use other systems of algae control for best results
Fountains are more likely places you can use bluestone – without fish
Sources for Products Mentioned on This Page
Multiple sources for bluestone in case you really want to play with this and have a big enough pond to warrant the use.